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  Control and monitoring and protection of HV motors

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مُساهمةموضوع: Control and monitoring and protection of HV motors   الجمعة أبريل 08, 2011 2:51 pm

E/CT 142 up dated 1992
Denis Koch
Graduate engineer IEG at Grenoble
in 1979. Joined Merlin Gerin High
Voltage Transmission department in
1979. He was involved in the
development of new arcing
chambers now used with circuit
breakers 420 kV/2 chambers,
245 kV/1 chamber and
525 kV 2 chambers.
In 1984, he joined the Medium
Voltage Equipment Division in the
technical department and since 1986
is responsible for the technical
management of medium voltage
circuit breakers and contactors. He
specializes in switching low
inductive currents (IEEE
publications).
n° 142
control
equipment for MV
capacitor banks
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.2
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.3
control equipment for MV capacitor banks
summary
1. Reactive energy compensation Introduction p. 4
M.V. compensation techniques p. 5
Symbol definitions used p. 5
2. Switching capacitor banks Electrical switch-on phenomena p. 6
Electrical switch-off phenomena p. 8
Some values p. 9
3. Problems concerning Electrical stresses p. 10
Capacitor bank design p. 10
Switchgear thermal rating p. 10
4. Switchgear problems Problems involved p. 11
Merlin Gerin solutions p. 11
Standards p. 11
Selection table for the use of
Merlin Gerin MV switchgear p. 13
5. Inrush-current calculations Single bank p. 14
Multiple banks p. 14
Surge inductances p. 14
6. Appendices App. 1: medium voltage
switchgear characteristics p. 15
App. 2: selection table
for the use of MV switchgear p. 16
App. 3: inrush current
function of number of operations p. 17
App. 4: switching on capacitor
banks: inrush current calculations
summary table p. 18
7. Bibliography Standards p. 19
Publications p. 19
capacitors and solutions
and surge inductances
and technical solutions
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.4
introduction
The location of the capacitors in an
electrical network constitutes what is
known as the "compensation mode".
This is determined by:
n the objective desired (penalty suppression,
cable relief, transformers...,
increasing the voltage level),
n the electrical distribution mode,
n the loading rate,
n the predictable influence of the capacitors
on the characteristics of thenetwork
n the cost of the installation.
Reactive energy compensation can be
(see fig. 1):
n overall, for example:
n HV network for EDF 1
n MV network for a medium voltage
subscriber 2
n LV network for a low voltage
subscriber 3 on fixed type bank.
n by sector, for example:
n by distribution center for EDF (primary
substation) 4
n by workshop or building for a low
voltage subscriber 5
n individual
This compensation is technically ideal
since it produces reactive energy at the
point where it is consumed, and in
quantities strictly adjusted according to
the demand.
However, this solution is costly and
generally leads to overcompensation
since it does not include combining
possibilities for load increases.
Example: large medium and low voltage
motors.
1. reactive energy compensation
It is more economical to install capacitor
banks for MV and HV for power ratings
exceeding about 1,000 kVAr. However,
analysis of different countries networks
shows that there is no universal rule.
The compensation mode depends on
the country's and company's distributors
energy policy. In the U.S.A. compensation
is essentially in MV for tariff policy
reasons. In contrast in Germany,
compensation is done in LV, because it
is logical to compensate exactly at the
reactive energy consumption point.
n in France, EDF installs fixed banks on
the 63 and 90 kV networks and multiple
banks in its HV/MV substations on its
10, 15, and 20 kV networks.
The power on the latter can reach
4.8 MVAr at 20 kV.
fig. 1
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.5
n MV or LV subscribers must
compensate their installations, to obtain
a power factor value at the connection
point to the main network of not less
than 0.928.
This document covers only medium
voltage compensation.
MV compensation
techniques
Standards compensation
The capacitor banks are connected in
parallel to the network.
They can be:
n single (see fig. 2)
When their reactive power is low and
the load relatively stable.
n multiple (see fig. 3)
This type of compensation is commonly
called "back to back".
This type of bank is widely used in
heavy industry (high power load) and
power suppliers (EDF in the primary
substations).
It allows step by step reactive energy
regulation.
Switching on or off multiple banks can
be controlled by varmeter type relays.
Special compensations
Note: these systems are briefly covered
for information.
n instantaneous static compensators
When continuous and variable
compensation is required (industries
with very variable high loads and
regulation on some EHV networks),
installations combining capacitors,
variable inductances and power
electronics are set up (see fig. 4). The
system generally comprises:
n fixed bank of capacitors,
n a set of harmonic filters absorbing
network harmonics and harmonics
generated by the installation itself
(power electronics),
n a variable inductance connected
through thyristors. This inductance
absorbs the excess reactive energy
generated by the capacitors,
n some of these capacitors can be
switched themselves by thyristor.
n series bank
In the case of large networks with long
lines, capacitor banks can be mounted
in series on the line (see fig. 5).
This circuit arrangement allows
permanent compensation adapted to
the requirements since the reactive
energy provided depends on the line
current.
Such systems exist on the American
continent, but this technology is not
used in Europe.
A sophisticated short circuit system is
required to avoid the destruction of the
capacitors when a short circuit current
flows in the line.
symbol definitions used
Foreword: only three phase circuits
are covered in this study.
The notations are as follows:
n power supply source
n U: rated voltage,
n Icc: network short circuit current,
n Scc: network short circuit power
Scc = 3 U Icc = U 2
Lo w
,
n Lo: network short circuit inductance,
n f: industrial frequency,
n w: pulsation at industrial frequency.
n the connections
n L: connection inductance (series), with
the bank (single bank case),
n l : connection inductance (series) with
each bank step (multiple capacitor
bank),
n L: surge inductance.
n load
n C: bank capacity,
n Q: bank power,
(Q = U 2 C w = 3 U Icapa),
n Icapa: capacitive current flowing in the
bank.
n transient phenomena
n Ie: inrush current,
n fe: inherent oscillation frequency of Ie,
n SA: overvoltage factor (supply side).
SA in p.u. = maximum peak voltage
value divided by
U 2
3
,
n SB: overvoltage factor (capacitor side)
n switchgear
n In: rated normal current,
n Iencl. max: maximum making capacity
(peak).
fig. 2
fig. 3
fig. 4
fig. 5
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.6
2. switching capacitor banks
electrical switch-on
phenomena
Switching-on a bank of capacitors
which is connected in parallel to the
network causes transient phenomena
resulting from bank charging.
As far as the current is concerned, the
oscillating load provokes an overcurrent
with an amplitude which is a function of
the network and bank characteristics.
At the point of consideration, switchingon
is equivalent in practical terms to the
setting up of a short circuit with short
duration (high frequency in relation to
the network frequency).
From the voltage side, the load is
followed by the propagation of a shock
wave. These transient phenomena
depend on network characteristics and
on the timing of contact closing or
prestrike.
The closing peak current is given by:
Ie = U 2
3
C
Lo
= Icapa x 2 Scc
Q
Scc: short circuit power of the source in
MVA at the connection point
Q: capacitor power rating in MVAr.
There are two possible cases: a single
bank and a bank divided into several
capacitors to be switched independently
to the supply system.
Single capacitor banks (see fig. 6)
Note: L £ Lo
L is thus ignored with respect to Lo in
the following calculations.
The switching-on of an isolated bank
in a network (wiring diagram with
current and voltage curves showing
the inrush current and the overvoltages
on supply side and load side
which follow closing) is shown in figure
7.
The inherent oscillation frequency is
fe = 1
2 p Lo C
The overvoltages supply side and load
side are equal to: SA = SB = 2 p.u. fig. 6
fig. 7
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.7
Multiple capacitor banks (see fig. Cool
Remark: we only consider the case of
identical bank units. Calculations are
more complex for the general case (see
IEC standard 56. 1987 Appendix BB).
Lo: source inductance
l : series link inductance
n: number of steps operating when the
n + 1th is closed.
The switch-on of one step, made with on
line charged capacitors, provokes two
superimposed transient phenomena.
The first very fast in frequency
1
2 p l C
corresponds to the discharge
of the connected capacitors into the
switched-on capacitor; the second, with
slower frequency
1
2 p Lo C
thus very negligible in
relation to the other (Lo much higher than
l ) corresponds to the discharge of all the
bank units into the network, equalizing
the banks potential.
The switch-on of the n + 1th bank of a
multiple bank (schematic diagram and
current and voltage curves showing
inrush current, overvoltages appearing at
the switch-on by distinguishing both
phenomena) is shown in figure 9.
It should be noted that the overvoltage
propagated on the network SA decreases
as the number of banks units in
service increases. On the other hand,
the inrush current is all higher since the
number of units is high.
Ie = n
n + 1
U 2
3
C
l
= Icapa 2 n
n + 1
fe
f
inherent oscillation frequency
fe = 1
2 p l C
Supply side overvoltage:
SA = n + 2
n + 1
p.u.
capacitor side overvoltage:
SA = 2n
n + 1
p.u.
These overvoltages never exceed
twice the network voltage and generally
do not cause problems, all the
units being constructed to tolerate this
level. On the other hand, the inrush
currents require appropriate methods to
avoid damage to the capacitors and the
switchgear.
fig. 9
fig. 8
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.8
electrical switch-off
phenomena
When the arc of the switching device is
extinghished at a zero current, the
separated bank remains charged at
peak voltage.
The bank is then discharged through
the discharge resistors fitted with each
capacitor (time: 1 to 5 minutes).
The Transient Recovery Voltage at the
switch terminals reaches 2 UM after a
half cycle (assuming a very short arc
time). If the switch dielectric
regeneration increases faster than the
TRV, the current interruption occurs
normally.
On the contrary if it increases less
quickly than the TRV, then a
breakdown occurs (see fig. 10 C ).
The Standards distinguish between
reignition (breakdown before the
quarter of cycle after clearing) which
does not cause a rise in voltage, and
restrike (breakdown after the quarter of
cycle).
In this case (see fig. 10 D ), the
phenomena are similar to those during
switch-on, but can be amplified by the
fact that energizing can occur under a
voltage equal to the double of the
closing one.
From a theoretical point of view, if
several energizings happen, the
following occurs:
n increasing shock waves:
2 UM; 4 UM; 6UM...
n increasing overvoltages: 3 UM; 5 UM;
7 UM...
n increasing TRV: 2 UM; 4 UM...
In practice, voltages do not increase so
quickly and so regularly at each restrike
because restrikes do not always appear
when the difference of voltage is
maximum and there is also some
damping. Nevertheless, successive
restrikes during the switching off of a
bank can lead to high overvoltages,
which are dangerous for the network
and for the capacitors.
In addition, resulting inrush currents are
proportional to the difference of voltage
between the network and the bank
before energizing.
Consequently, the inrush current
amplitudes are always greater than
those during switch-on and are thus
more dangerous for all the equipment.
fig. 10
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.9
It is therefore of prime importance to
use operating switchgear with rapid
dielectric regeneration to avoid
restrikes.
some values
The inrush currents during closing
vary considerably according to the
network configuration.
n in the case of a single bank, the
transient peak current depends on the
short circuit power at the connection
point.
Figure 11 shows the ratio:
Ie
Icapa
as a function of Scc and of the bank
power Q.
In the existing installations, inrush
current never exceeds 100 times the
current flowing in the bank (Icapa).
On average, the inrush current is of
the order of 10 to 30 times Icapa.
The frequency related to the transient
phenomena is from 300 to 1,000 Hz
(fe = 1
2 p Lo C
= w
2 p 2
Ie
Icapa
)
n in the case of a multiple banks the
transient current is much higher as the
linking inductance is very weak in
relation to the source inductance.
Without any particular limitation (surge
inductances), the inrush currents are 30
to 50 times higher than in the previous
case. These inrush currents are generally
larger than the values tolerated by
the switchgear. Limiting inductances
(called surge inductances) are thus
necessary in most cases (see § 5).
fig. 11
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.10
3. problems concerning capacitors and solutions
electrical stresses
Switchgear has to withstand inrush
currents and overvoltages during
capacitor switching operations.
If the switchgear is designed for normal
ratings, precautions must be taken when
the performances of the operating
equipment are not high enough.
Capacitors
The transient overvoltage of 2 UM at the
terminals is normally carried out without
any particular ageing provided that it
does not occur more than 1,000 times
yearly. The inrush currents during
switch-on must never exceed 100 times
the capacitor bank nominal current
rating.
Such an inrush current can be withstood
1,000 times yearly. An inrush current of
30 times Icapa can be accepted
100,000 times yearly.
In case of higher inrush currents, limit
inductances commonly called surge
inductance are connected in series with
the capacitor banks.
capacitor bank design
There are two cases:
n single bank (see fig. 12),
n multiple banks (see fig. 13),
Single bank
The equipment is usually of simple
design because:
n the networks Scc does not cause
inrush currents greater than 100. Icapa,
n the number of operations is small
since there is no reactive energy
regulation.
Therefore there is no need for surge
inductance. The capacitor bank is
directly connected to the network
through its protection device, chosen
according to the voltage, short circuit
current, and thermal current
characteristics (capacitive current
+ 30 %).
n Ie must be lower than the making
capacity of the protection device, for
the number of operations concerned.
Multiple banks
The linking inductances are generally
very low between the different capacitor
banks.
Making currents must be limited by
surge inductance in series with the
bank:
n to avoid exceeding the 100 Icapa
admissible for the capacitors,
n to avoid exceeding the making
capacity of the switchgear.
switchgear thermal rating
One switchgear characteristic is its
permanent heating condition which
corresponds to its nominal current
rating.
When this switchgear switches and/or
protects capacitors, the real current in
the bank must be taken into account,
and this can be higher than the
assigned current. This permanent
overload is generally due to current
harmonics with frequencies higher than
the industrial frequency.
Power capacitors can accept 1.3 times
the assigned current value.
Thus the maximum capacitive current
assigned at 50 Hz for all equipment will
be 0.7 In.
fig. 12
fig. 13
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.11
The switchgear consists of (see fig. 14):
n the operating control devices
(switches, contactors) used in multiple
banks cases,
n protection devices (circuit breakers)
which are always used for single banks
and also relatively often for the multiple
banks.
problems involved
The main problems concerning the
switchgear are:
Inrush current
n at nominal frequency (50 or 60 Hz),
the circuit breaker has not to respond to
the peak value of the current during the
prestrike period (< 3 ms).
n at a frequency of about 1 kHz, the
circuit breaker has to withstand a series
of current peaks during the prestrike.
This indicates that contact wear is
much bigger at higher frequencies than
at nominal frequency, for an equivalent
current.
Breaking
The principal phenomena involved are
described in the paragraph "Electrical
switch off phenomena" (essentially a
dielectric problem: be careful on
restrikes).
In addition, in case the protection
function must be ensured, the stresses
related to the short circuit breaking
must also be considered.
Overloading due to harmonics
Generators and receivers in which the
magnetic circuits are saturated (static
converters) cause voltage wave
distorsions, resulting in significant
current harmonics, since in the case of
capacitors, current I is proportional to
the frequency, i.e. for the harmonic
rank n, of relative value x. %
I = UCn w = I 50 Hz 1 + (n x) 2
with U = U 50 Hz 1 + x 2
The overload factor is
1 + (n x) 2
1 + x 2
» 1 + x 2 n 2 - 1
2
Standards UTE 127, C54.100, CEI 70,
CEI 871 for capacitors, indicate an
fig. 14
overload factor of 30 % (corresponding
to n = 5 and x = 17 %).
If In is the rated nominal current of the
switchgear, the maximum capacitive
current which can be carried at 50 Hz,
is thus Icapa = 0.7 In.
In (A) Icapa (A)
630 400
1,250 875
2,500 1,750
3,150 2,200
Mechanical endurance
Switching and protecting capacitor
banks occur several times a day, therefore
good electrical and mechanical
endurance are also required for
switchgear.
Merlin Gerin solutions
In response to all these problems
Merlin Gerin has chosen the SF6
breaking technique. The dielectric rigidity
of this gas being much higher at equal
pressure than most of those known, the
capacitive current breaking is ensured
without restrikes and at a relatively low
pressure of SF6 (£ 2.5 bar). The opening
dielectric witthstand is not related to the
previous closing current peak. Closing
operation brings inrush current which is
the main cause of contact wear (wear
during opening is negligible) because this
inrush current occurs at each operation.
It is thus the value of this peak current
and the number of operations which
must be considered with respect to
electrical endurance. Good electrical
endurance is obtained by using tungsten
alloys at the arcing contacts extremities,
and using SF6 with activated alumina, to
limit the rate of gas decomposition
during breaking to negligible values.
The robustness and the mechanical
simplicity of the switchgear allow, in
general, 5 times more operations than
required by standards IEC 56. 1987, i.e.
10,000 operations.
The entire MG switchgear range is
capable of operating capacitor banks in
compliance with IEC and ANSI
standards. Performance data are given
in the technical leaflets. As an example,
some characteristics are given (valid in
1988) for circuit breakers, contactors
and MV switches in appendix 1.
standards
IEC standards
Standards 56. 1987 specifies the test
methods for closing and breaking
capacitive currents. Two supply circuits
are described.
n circuit A: impedance such as the short
circuit current does not exceed 10 % of
the cirucit current is of the same order as
the circuit breaker nominal short circuit.
n circuit B: impedance such as the short
circuit current is of the same order as the
circuit breaker's nominal short circuit.
4. switchgear problems and technical solutions
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.12
sequences for three phase switchgear
test duty sequ. No voltage % capa No of
operations
isolated capacitor bank 1 A 30 24 O
or cable switching
isolated capacitor bank 1 B 100 24 CO
or cable switching
back to back 2 A 30 24 O
capacitor bank
back to back 2 B 100 24 CO
capacitor bank
If Icapa is the nominal capacitive
current, there are four test sequences
(see fig. 15).
Each test sequence must include
10 tests (three phase case) or 12 tests
(single phase case). Concerning back
to back switching, the IEC Standards
cover the methods for inrush currents
and indicates an approximate value of
the inherent frequencies of these
currents: 2 to 5 kHz.
ANSI standards
Related documents:
ANSI C37-073-1972
ANSI C37-0732-1972
ANSI C37-06 version Dec. 85.
Parameter definitions of this standard:
n V: maximum nominal voltage
n Isc: short circuit current
n A = Isc
Isc - Icapa
See adjoining fig. 16
In each sequence, one breakdown is
accepted provided that it does not
occur more than 1/3 cycle after clearing
(5.5 ms).
Number of operations: 24 openings
distributed as follows:
n 12 O from 0° to 180° with 2 O
every 30°,
n 6 O with an arc time 1st phase to
clear the shortest (at ± 7.5°),
n 6 O with an arc time 1st phase to
clear the longest (at ± 7.5°)
Value of Icapa (see fig. 17).
Test parameters for back to back
switching (see fig. 18).
EDF regulation
Standards: UTE C64 102 (circuit
breakers) and UTE C64 132 (switches).
EDF uses MV multiple capacitor banks
in metal-enclosed switchgear with
integral switch. MG switch used is the
FLUARC IFB4.
Bank power: 4.8 MVAr or 160 A
capacitive under 20 kV.
EDF definies 2 classes of switch
(see fig. 19).
During type testing, IFB4 Switch has
achieved in the Renardieres laboratory
10,000 CO in electrical endurance
(Ie = 11.5 kAp and Icapa = 160 A) and
10,000 CO in mechanical endurance.
These tests show that the
MG SF6 switchgear gives the perfect
control of electrical phenomena which
occur during switching on and switching
off, capacitors in the network, and have
a high mechanical endurance.
test sequences supply circuit test current
in % of Icapa
1 A 20 to 40
2 A over 100
3 B 20 to 40
4 B over 100
fig. 15
fig. 16
In (A) Icapa max (A)
circuit breaker outdoor
for metalclad application circuit breaker
1,200 630 400
2,000 1,000 400
3,000 1,600 400
fig. 17
circuit breaker outdoor
for metalclad application circuit breaker
In (A) Ie (kÂ) fe (kHz) Ie (kÂ) fe (kHz)
£ 2,000 15 £ 2.0 20 4.2
3,000 25 1.3 20 4.2
fig. 18
fig. 19
class test order
mechanical oper. electrical oper. mechanical oper. electrical oper.
1 3,000 CO 2,000 CO
2 5,000 CO 5,000 CO 5,000 CO 5,000 CO
2 V
1 + A
2 V
1 + A
2 V
1 + A
2 V
1 + A
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.13
selection table for the use
of MG medium voltage
switchgeear
Electrical endurance (on closing)
The various tests made in the
laboratory, and the theoretical contact
wear calculations using Weibull's law,
give for each switchgear the maximum
number of operations, as a function of
the inrush current.
The oscillation frequency has little
impact on contact wear and thus on the
switchgear performance (except Rollarc
contactor 1.6 kHz max).
The curves for each switchgear are
shown in appendix 2, with test
references, and a table for each item of
switchgear indicating.
n inrush corresponding to the mechanical
endurance of the switchgear
n maximum inrush current and the
corresponding number of operations.
Note: the curves in appendix 2
correspond in fact to a close/open
endurance, with "normal" opening
current values: for opening currents
higher than 300 A, phase consult MG.
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.14
5. inrush current calculations and surge inductances
fig. 20
Iencl.max.: maximum switchgear
making current: kAp,
U: voltage kV,
L: surge inductance in mH,
3 rd case:
Combine 1st and 2nd case.
Take the biggest value of L.
Note: to summarize the inrush
current calculations for single or
multiple banks, see appendix 3.
surge inductances
The inductances must be adapted as a
function of the manufacturer's capabilities
and economic considerations.
Installation: internal - external
Nominal permanent current.
1.3 to 1.5 In.
Inductance value: 0 + 20 %
Thermic witchstand to transient inrush
currents: 30 to 50 In.
Electrodynamic withstand: Icc at the
connection point.
It is an inductance without magnetic
core. The most frequently used values
are those with inductances of 50, 100
or 150 mH.
For example: EDF 50 mH 200 A for
3 banks of 4.8 MVAr under 20 kV.
Preliminaries:
n symbol definitions used: see
paragraph 2 page 5.
n as a function of nominal voltages and
currents (with Icapa = 0.7 In), shortcircuit
power, etc... it is assumed the
switchgear has been already selected
for the following calculations.
single bank
n power Q = U 2 C w = 3 U Icapa,
n inrush current:
Ie = 1
Lo C
x 1
w
Icapa 2
= Icapa 2 Scc
Q
Lo: source inductance
Scc: network short circuit power,
n corresponding oscillation frequency:
fe = 1
2 p Lo C
In general, no surge inductance is
necessary, except in cases where Scc
is high and Q low; peak current must
then be limited:
n either for the capacitors:
(Ie > 100 Icapa),
n or either for the switchgear (Ie incompatible
with the appendix curves).
n surge inductance calculations (added
to Lo).
1st case
Ie > 100 Icapa (capacitor limit)
Take L = U 2
w
(200
Q
- 10 6
Scc
)
With L in mH
U kV
Q MVAr
Scc MVA
2nd case
Ie > Iencl max, maximum inrush current
of the switchgear (indicated in appendix
2).
Take L = 10 6
w
( 2 Q
3 (Iencl. max) 2
- U 2
Scc
)
With L in mH
Q MVAr
Iencl max kAp
U kV
3rd case
Combine 1st and 2nd case.
Take the biggest value of L.
multiple banks
n n banks (identical) switched on when
n + 1th is switched on,
n unit power :
Q = U 2 Cw = 3 U Icapa
n inrush current:
Ie = 2
3
U n
n + 1
C
l
= Icapa 2 n
n + 1
fe
f
l : link inductance:
0.5 mH/m is a good approximation for
bars or cables in medium voltage.
n oscillation frequency:
fe = 1
2 p l C
Link inductances between the banks
are generally very low (a few mH), that
is why a limitation of inrush currents by
a surge inductance in series with each
bank is generally necessary
(see fig. 20).
n surge inductance calculation L.
The value of l added to L is neglected.
1st case:
Ie > 100 Icapa (capacitor limitation)
Take L = ( n
n + 1
) 2 2 . 10 2
w
U 2
Q
2nd case :
Ie > (Iencl.max.) maximum peak
current for the switchgear (indicated in
appendix 2)
Take L = ( n
n + 1
) 2 2 . 10 6
3 w
Q
(Iencl. max) 2
With:
n: number of switch-on
banks when n + 1th
is switched on,
Q: bank power MVAr,
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.15
6. appendices
appendix 1: medium voltage switchgear characteristics
switchgear short circuit rated normal capacitive current
designation performance current switched
circuit breaker (1)
FG1 25 kA/12 kV 630 440
20 kA/15 kV and 1,250 A and 875 A
FG2 50 kA/12 kV 630 440
40 kA/17.5 kV to 3,150 A to 2,200 A
FG3 31.5 kA/25.8 kV 630 440
to 2,500 A to 1,750 A
FG4 40 kA/38 kV 630 440
31.5 kA/40.5 kV to 2,500 A to 1,750 A
FB4 25 kA/40.5 kV 630 440
and 1,250 A and 875 A
SF1 25 kA/38 kV 630 440
and 1,250 A (2) and 875 A
contactor (2)
Rollarc R 400 10 kA/7.2 kV 400 A 240 A
8 kA/12 kV
switch for capacitors
IFB4 24 kV 160 A
VM6 24 kV 135 A
(1) This switchgear can be used as capacitor switch.
(2) SF1 1,250 A available in 1993.
n FG4
at 30 kV single phase voltage, closing
15 kAp under 2.5 kHz and 880 A
opening.
CESI-GPS 1543 report.
n FB4
at 30 kV single phase voltage, closing
15 kAp under 2.5 kHz and 880 A
opening.
CESI-GPS 1544 report.
n VM6
at 24 kV three phase voltage, opening
135 A.
Volta report AB 2430.
n SF1 630 A
at 24 and 36 kV three phase, 440 A.
CESI-GPS 1952 A and B.
All updated characteristics are given in
the technical specifications.
A summary is given here (valid in
1992).
Some test references
n electrical closing endurance
n IFB4
- EDF standard for capacitor banks of
4.8 MVAr switch.
- 10,000 closing and opening under
23 kV with closing current: 11.5 kAp,
oscillation frequency 3.4 kHz and
opening current: 160 A.
- 10,000 closing and opening unloaded.
EDF report HM 51-02-201.
n FG1
- 700 single phase closing at 25 kAp
under 2 kHz that is 1,400 in three
phase.
- 1,000 single phase closing at 20 kAp
under 2.5 kHz that is 2,000 in three
phase.
Volta report AR 113 A.
n FB4
- 4,500 single phase closing at 10 kAp
under 4.1 kHz that is about 2,000 in
three phase.
Volta report E74.
n VM6
- 4,000 closing/opening under 25 kV
- closing 8 kAp; opening 100 A.
EDF report HM 51-07-929.
n Other tests closing/opening
n FG3
at 24 kV single phase voltage, closing
15 kAp under 2.5 kHz and 880 A
opening.
CESI-GPS 1540 report.
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.16
appendix 2: selection table for the use of medium voltage
switchgear
switchgear Icc max No of Ie No of Iencl.max
designation operations: correspond'g operations kAp
Nmax to Nmax.-kAp at Iencl.max
circuit breaker
FB4 10,000 10 3,500 15
FG1 10,000 7 1,400 25
FG2 < 29 kA 10,000 10 3,500 15
> 29 kA 10,000 13 2,000 25
FG3 < 29 kA 10,000 10 3,500 15
> 29 kA 10,000 13 2,000 25
FG4 < 29 kA 10,000 10 3,500 15
> 29 kA 10,000 13 2,000 25
SF1 1,250 A 10,000 10 3,500 15
contactor
ROLLARC 300,000 2 10,000 8
switch
IFB4 10,000 10 3,500 15
VM6 4,000 8
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.17
appendix 3: inrush current
function of number of
operations
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.18
single bank multiple banks (identical)
Lo = short circuit network inductance n banks switched on when n + 1 switched on
Scc = 3 U Icc with U/ 3 = LowIcc l = link inductance (0.5 mH/m)
bank power Q = U 2 C w = 3 U Icapa Q = U 2 C w = 3 U Icapa; Q = Power of each bank
inrush frequency Ie = 1
Lo C
x 1
w
Icapa 2 = Icapa 2 Scc
Q
Ie = 2
3
U n
n + 1
C
l
= Icapa 2 n
n + 1
fe
f
oscillation frequency fe = 1
2 p Lo C
fe = 1
2 p l C
max. bank peak Imax. peak bank = 100 Icapa Imax. peak bank = 100 Icapa
electrical switchgear cf curve appendix 2 cf curve appendix 2
switchgear nominal Inominal ³ Icapa
0.7
Inominal ³ Icapa
0.7
supply side 2 p.u. n + 2
n + 1
p.u.
load side 2 p.u. 2n
n + 1
p.u.
surge inductance generally, surge induct not reqd generally, surge induct reqd
(unless Scc high and Q low)
surge inductance L ³ 10 6
w
( 2 Q
3 (Imax. peak) 2
- U 2
Scc
) L ³ 2 . 10 6
3
Q
w
( n
n + 1
) 2 x 1
(Imax. peak) 2
Note: for definitions of symbols used: see para 1 page 3.
L: mH
Q: MVAr
Scc: MVA
Imax. peak: kAp (*)
(*) Imax. peak is the smallest of the two following switched on values:
- the bank maximum peak current (100 Icapa)
- the switchgear maximum peak current Iencl. max. (see appendix 2: curves or 2nd column summary table).
appendix 4: switching on capacitor banks: inrush current calculations summary table
endurance
current
overvoltage
overvoltage
calculations L
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.19
7. bibliography
Standards
IEC 56, 1987
UTE C64 102 and C64 132
ANSI C37-073-1972 and
C37-073-1972
Merlin Gerin's "Cahiers Techniques"
n Economic optimization of capacitor
banks.
(Optimisation économique des
batteries de condensateurs).
Cahier Technique n° 100
(C.G. POUZOLS)
n Contactor-fuse combinations for the
protection of high voltage receivers -
2nd part - The case of capacitors and
transformers.
(Association contacteurs - Coupe
circuit pour la commande et la
protection des récepteurs haute
tension - 2e partie - Cas des condensateurs
et des transformateurs).
Cahier Technique n° 108
(SAPUTO)
Publications
n Revue Generale de l'Electricité
(General review of Electricity)
October 1958:
Switching and protection switchgear for
capacitor banks in a medium voltage
network.
(L'appareillage de manoeuvre et de
protection pour les batteries de
condensateurs sur un réseau MT).
n Merger Magazine Number 43-
Switching on and off capacitor banks,
pages: 1 to 21.
(Enclenchement et déclenchement
des batteries de condensateurs,
p. 1 à 21).
DUCLUZAUX-HENNEBERT
n Electra Number 62
Circuit-breaker stresses when switching
back-to-back capacitor banks.
(Contraintes sur les disjoncteurs des
batteries de condensateurs couplées
"dos à dos" lors des manoeuvres).
n Electra Number 87
Requirements for capacitive current
switching tests employing synthetic test
circuits for circuit-breakers without
shunt resistors.
Cahier Technique Merlin Gerin n° 142 / p.20
Réal. : Illustration Technique Lyon - Photo : IPV
IPV 09-92 - 2500 - Imp. Léostic






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